Category Archives: Oromia
THE PRESENT PHASE OF THE OROMO NATIONAL MOVEMENT: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ACTION ITEMS
The Oromo Scholars and Professional Group
Realizing the fact that the effort of transitioning the Ethiopian Empire to democracy has been derailed primarily because of the incompetency and ill will of the Abiy Ahmed government, which emerged in 2018 from the EPRDF and later formed the Prosperity Party (PP) to gain political legitimacy without shedding the authoritarian and colonial essence of the former party, the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) issued a declaration on September 13, 2020. In this declaration the front proposed the formation of an inclusive “national” convention in which all political parties and fronts in the empire as stakeholders would participate in developing a political road map, which would be acceptable to a broad majority of them, to avoid the looming state collapse and the possible emergence of an empire-wide conflict and war, and to ensure the transition to a genuine multinational democracy. Furthermore, the OLF invites international bodies such as the United Nations and its Security Council, the United Nations Human Rights Commission, and regional organizations such as the African Union and the European Union to be actively involved in the process of preventing the danger of state collapse and the total breakdown of the empire resulting in unimaginable human tragedy.
More importantly, the front calls upon all citizens of Oromia in general and independent Oromo political organizations, civic institutions, and professional associations in particular, to initiate the process of forming an Oromia transitional government to protect their society from the emerging political and security crises in Oromia and beyond. The Oromo Scholars and Professionals group believes that two major contradictory processes have started to emerge in Ethiopia and Oromia: 1) the decomposition of the Ethiopian colonial system and its institutional infrastructures such as the nafxanya government and other institutions, and 2) the emergence of progressive forces that are determined to establish a true multinational democracy in the context of federation or confederation, which guarantees national self-determination. Consequently, the Oromo Scholars and Professionals Group concurs with the explanations of the OLF and endorses its declaration.
Because of its abundant economic resources and geographical landmass, the size of its population, and the recent development of the Qeerroo/Qarree movement, which has mobilized the entire Oromo nation to fight against injustices and gross human rights violations, Oromia has become the hotspot of the emerging political contestation between the old and dying forces on one hand and the new and energized political and social movements on the other. Despite facing monumental challenges from its external and internal enemies, the Oromo national movement appears to have embarked on the final phase of its journey toward the long sought national self-determination. Particularly, the OLF, which mapped out the ideological and political roadmap of the Oromo nation in the 1970s by introducing an ideological innovation and the knowledge for liberation to Oromo society has challenged the underpinnings of Ethiopianism and nafxanyaa philosophy that have provided the justification for the abuse of Oromo humanity and identity, liberated the minds of millions of Oromos, and mobilized them to struggle for their freedom and liberate their country from Abyssinian/Habasha domination.
Consequently, the flourishing of national Oromummaa (Oromo national history, culture, and nationalism) and the consolidation of Oromo unity as demonstrated by the recent Qeerro/Qarree movement have revealed the potential of Oromo society to bring about fundamental transformations in Oromia, the Ethiopian Empire, and the Horn of Africa. In disapproval and objection to the development of Oromo political consciousness and national Oromummaa, the neo-nafxanya government of Abiy Ahmed and all external and internal enemies of the Oromo national struggle are currently attacking Oromo nationalists in general and independent Oromo political organizations such as the OLF and the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) and their key leaders, members and sympathizers in particular in order to deny the people the institutional and organizational capacity, which is absolutely necessary to empower the Oromo nation. The main objectives of the neo-nafxanayaa government and its collaborators are to continue disempowering the Oromo people by dispossessing their lands and other resources and by keeping them in the status of colonial subjects, who are disorganized and easily terrorized and dominated.
The recent ideological and intellectual victories of the Oromo national movement have disturbed the neo-nafxanyaas and their government. They are worried that they cannot successfully implement their grand plans for dismantling Oromia and Oromo nationhood/peoplehood. Their strategies are to fragment the Oromo nation into local and religious identities, partition Oromia again into colonial administrative regions, reimpose Habasha/Amhara culture and language, and to continue looting Oromia resources. The OLF and OFC have become the main obstacles to these grand schemes while some Oromo organizations and former politicians/activists are willingly becoming the agents of the neo-nafxanyaa government to satisfy their personal interests at the expense of the Oromo nation. Currently, Abiy and his government are trying to dismantle the independent leaderships of OLF and OFC and replace them by a subservient leadership that will be commanded by the neo-nafxanyaa government. They do this to continue Habasha/Amhara hegemony and to securely institutionalize Ethiopian settler colonialism and its nafxanyaa system.
In its attempt to destroy or diminish the Oromo national movement and its organizational infrastructures, Abiy and his government have developed and used four main political and ideological schemes.
- Using the carrot and stick strategy, the Abiy government has corrupted and incorporated some Oromo political activists/politicians, who were members of the now defunct Oromo Democratic Front, as well as some of the leaders of the so-called OLF-United, using them in the struggle against Oromo independent political and civic organizations and Oromo society.
- Claiming the rise of Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) as a pretext, it has mobilized politically naive and/or Oromo opportunists and subservient organizations to ideologically attack the OLF and the OLA, justifying the establishment of a brutal military rule under command posts in many regions of Oromia.
- While cementing his political relationship with his nafxanyaa brethren, Abiy has defamed and devalued Oromo nationalism by falsely claiming it has reduced the significance of the Oromo nation to a local phenomenon.
- Creating animosity and hatred for Oromo nationalists, Abiy’s government used the assassination of Hacaalu Hundessa (for which it is either directly or indirectly responsible) to amass Oromo political leaders, nationalists, and activists and jam them in overcrowded and filthy jails, which are infested with Covid-19 and other dangerous diseases. Following the killing of Hacaalu Hundessa on June 29, 2020, the government massacred hundreds of people and incarcerated more than 9,000 Oromos, charging them with terrorism.
- Abiy and his nafxanyaa comrades are campaigning hard to misinform the world community by portraying Oromo nationalists as extremists and terrorists. The fact on the ground, however, is that the Oromo people have never resorted to terrorism or extremism in their bitter struggle to liberate themselves from the yoke of barbaric subjugation and economic marginalization.
Preemptive political crimes have been concocted and implemented to enable the PP to win the upcoming elections and keep Abiy in power. Above all, Abiy’s security infrastructure has detained most of the known OLF leadership to make it a marionette of PP or to simply destroy it. When these efforts failed, the government sponsored the creation of what is now called the Hilton group, a renegade group corrupted from the ranks of the OLF that takes its orders from Abiy’s government. The fact that the Abiy government is now calling for a general election is clear evidence that COVID-19 was not the reason for postponing the May 2020 election. If that was the reason, the government does not reverse the decision now when COVID-19 is more prevalent. The true intention for illegally and unconstitutionally postponing the election was to weaken formidable political opponents so that Abiy and his party can declare victory by running against themselves, as they did in the 2015 sham election.
The declaration by agents of the government of Ethiopia and the neo-nafxanyaa media outlets that the chairman of the OLF was replaced by his deputy chairman was intended to spread confusion and to demoralize the Oromo people and promote the renegade group. Overall, the assassination of Hacaalu and the attack on the Oromo people and their leaders have renewed the commitment of the people to intensify the Oromo national movement in Oromia and the diaspora. Ongoing rebellions, economic boycotts and shutting down of highways are clear examples. The Oromo diaspora has come out in en masse in support of the Oromo struggle in Oromia by engaging in series of demonstrations and by engaging in public diplomacy on behalf their people. The demand to release all political prisoners and to abolish command posts in Oromia with emphatic support for the Oromo Liberation Army have dominated Oromo medias and other media outlets.
Our people, while aspiring for the liberation of their society and country under such dire conditions, must know that they need independent political organizations that lead their national movement through the rough roads ahead. Consequently, while engaging in different political activities, they must consider the following.
- Support the call for the formation of the Transitional Government of Oromia and contribute their fair share to its implementation;
- Become members or supporters of independent Oromo political organizations and provide human and financial resources to build the Oromo national organizational capacity;
- Join or support independent national civic institutions such as Oromia Global Forum;
- Centralize and coordinate the Qeerroo/Qarree movement with new strategies and tactics, armed with a robust network of firm and honest leadership that can resist corruption and infiltration by government security networks;
- Like any society in the world, the Oromo need their national defense army, which will protect them and their country from tyranny that have become too common these days. Therefore, every Oromo has a moral and national obligation to support the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) financially, ideologically, and intellectually.
- Support Oromo media outlets that focus on the Oromo national struggle to engage in knowledge dissemination and propaganda more actively. The enemies of the Oromo have been depicting the Oromo nation negatively and calling them foreigners in their own country. Currently, our external and internal enemies are painting members of Oromo society as extremists and terrorists, who hate non-Oromos and commit genocide on them. These nafxanyaa forces and their collaborators are well organized and financed, with powerful media outlets that attack the Oromo people day and night. In order to defend themselves from such attacks, the Oromo need to consolidate their media capacity, in order to equip our people with liberation knowledge by focusing on Oromo national culture, history, and national Oromummaa.
- Support our firm and historic initiatives to immediately start national dialogue among independent political groups or organizations, activists, scholars, religious institutions, etc., toward the creation of an independent Oromia democratic state to, once and for all, liberate Oromia from a stubborn adversary that is unwilling to live together with Oromos as equals by respecting Oromo national identity, lives, and culture.
- In summary, rather than waiting for Oromo political parties to mobilize and organize the Oromo people at home or in the diaspora, all freedom loving Oromos must voluntarily join or support our independent organizations and build their national leadership and organizational capacity. At the same time, Oromo nationalists and others must marshal their economic and intellectual resources to build OLA as the Oromo national defense force. It is a high time to stop appealing to and begging our morally corrupt external and internal enemies, and to take our national destiny in our hands. Once the independent Oromia democratic state is formed, the Oromo can freely decide on the process of forming a multinational confederation or federation within the context of a multinational democracy.
- Adugna Birhanu (Ph.D)
- Alemayehu Biru (Ph.D)
- Amanuel Gobena (Ph.D)
- Asefa Jalata (Ph.D)
- Asfaw Beyene (Ph.D)
- Ayana Gobena (Ph.D)
- Bahiru Duguma (Ph.D)
- Baro Deressa (MD)
- Bedassa Tadesse (Ph.D)
- Begna Dugassa (Ph.D)
- Bekele Temesgen (Ph.D)
- Benti Getahun (Ph.D)
- Berhanu Kedida (MD)
- Bersisa Berri (Ph.D)
- Bichaka Fayissa (Ph.D)
- Daniel Ayana (Ph.D)
- Degefa Abdissa Ph.D)
- Dessalegn Negeri (Ph.D)
- Desta Yebassa (Ph.D)
- Gizachew Tesso (Ph.D)
- Guluma Gemeda (Ph.D)
- Haile Hirpa (Ph.D)
- Ibrahim Elemo (Ph.D)
- Iddoosaa Ejeta (Ph.D)
- Ismael Abdullahi (Ph.D)
- Jamal Ebrahim (MD)
- Jemal Hebano (PharmD)
- Jenberu Feyisa (Ph.D)
- Junaidi Ahmed (MD)
- Koste Abdissa (Ph.D)
- Mekbib Gebeyehu (Ph.D)
- Mekuria Bulcha (Ph.D)
- Moa Apagodu (Ph.D)
- Mohammed Hassan(Ph.D)
- Mosisa Aga (Ph.D)
- Namara Garbaba (Ph.D)
- Oli Bachie (Ph.D)
- Rundassa Eshete (Ph.D)
- Samuel Geleta (Ph.D)
- Solomon Geleta (Ph.D)
- Teferi Margo (Ph.D)
- Tekleab Shibru (Ph.D)
- Tesfaye Negeri (Ph.D)
- Tesfaye Tesso (Ph.D)
- Thomas Baisa (MD)
- Tolawak Beyene (MD)
- Workineh Torben (Ph.D)
- Worku Burayu (Ph.D)
- Hambisa Belina (Ph.D)
- Habtalem Kenea (Ph.D)
- Alemayehu Kumsa (Ph.D)
- Alem Hika (Ph.D)
- Galaana Balcha (MD)
- Henok Gabisa (Ph.D)
- Mohammed Tahiro (Ph.D)
- Jirenya Gudeta (M.Sc)
- Imiru Itana (M.Sc)
- Itana Habte (Ph.D)
- Tsegaye Ararsa (Ph.D)
- Beyan Asoba (Ph.D)
- Mesfin Abdi (Ph.D)
- Gobena Huluka (Ph.D)
- Benti Ujulu (Ph.D)
- Kano Banjaa (Ph.D)
- Zelalem Abera (M.Sc)
- Teshome Dime (M.Sc)
- Abdisa Koricho (Ph.D)
- Geremew Nigatu (Ph.D)
- Ayele Teressa (Ph.D)
Declaration by the Qeerroo National Youth Movement and Citizens of Oromia
(A4O, 5 October 2020) Supporting the idea of Establishment of the Transitional Government led by OLF is not only necessary, rather, is found Crucial.
Following the Political Violence the Ethiopian Empire has sustained, the country lacks sustainable peace and stability. Specially, Oromia became war zone of the ruling government, and the people has risked many lives and destructed lots of properties.
Including high ranking officers and members of the opposition political parties, many more nationalists were detained and being tortured in various detention centers. In general, to elongate its political power, the terrorist group running the government post, has grossly violated human rights and putting the people under pressure.
In order to rescue the country from further crisis, especially, to transform Oromia from the Unitary System to that of Democratic System, making Oromia clear from violence zone and setting peace should be the primary duty of every one of us. OLF, in its statement of September 13, 2020, has taken political responsibility to enable Oromia get sustainable peace and security, and thereby ensure establishment of the Transitional Government of Oromia; and OFC also has accepted the same.
On its statement of September 28, 2020, OFC has also supported importance of the Transitional Government. Therefore, in order to ensure the establishment of the Transitional Government of Oromia which is declared by the Oromo Political Parties; Committee made up of Qeerroo National Youth Movement and Oromia Citizens determined to held demonstration showing support for establishment of a Transitional Government.
The Committee, in its message sent to its members in and outside country, it has stated: “For the achievement of a Transitional Government, all of the Wider Oromo Population, Citizens of Oromia in the country, neighboring and foreign countries, Oromo Activists, Oromo Medias as well Human Rights Activists, should be ready to carry out your responsibilities”.
Subsequently, when demonstration for support of the Transitional Government of Oromia is declared, besides our support for the same intent; Organizing Committee strictly advised every one to refrain from touching the residential area and property of others in words or action; framing other citizens and diplomats, as well as, clashing with security officers on national and country obligations like Oromia Police, and other Oromia Security Forces.
In general, without leaving Oromia Struggle Camp, supporting the principles declared by the Oromo Liberation Struggle Camp Officers, are asked to show only their support for the establishment of the Transitional Government of Oromia. The intended demonstration shall be fully peaceful. By this peaceful demonstration, which shall be made for the establishment of the Transitional Government, the Committee has highlighted that it will also concentrate on releasing the Political prisoners detained without a crime.
Finally, message is transferred by the Committee of the Transitional Government of Oromia, to the Oromia Citizens and various Community groups of the people of the country in the level of the Federal Region explained that: “Those who take measure on residential areas and properties of others in the name of the establishment of the Transitional Government, will not represent the Committee, and we shall also condemn those acts!”
Victory for the Citizens of Oromia!
Request to support the Establishment of Oromia Transitional Caretaker Government
Subject: Request to support the Establishment of Oromia Transitional Caretaker Government, and to intervene to resolve the Ethiopian Constitutional Crisis
We, the undersigned members of the Oromia Global Forum, are writing to request your support for formation of Transitional Caretaker Government of Oromia as proposed by the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC). We also request you to urgently intervene and avert the impending constitutional crisis in Ethiopia which, if left unattended to, can most likely result in a civil war with potentials for genocide and refugee crisis.
On October 5, 2020, the term of office for both federal and regional governments in Ethiopia will expire. However, the regime in power has unconstitutionally and forcefully postponed national and regional elections indefinitely. Rejected by the Oromo and other nations and nationalities, the government is engaged in conducting vindictive, politically motivated, imprisonments, extrajudicial killings, looting of properties, and all sort of crimes in Oromia state, in particular.
The Oromo people have endured unprecedented brutality, deprivation, expropriation of their ancestral lands, enslavement, and relentless attack on their cultural heritage, language, institution, and national identity ever since the Abyssinian (later named Ethiopian) rulers invaded and conquered Oromia and southern nations between 1880 and 1913. Erving E. BeaureGard (1976, PP24) vividly described Menelik II of Abyssinia conducted wanton aggression and invasion of Oromia using weapons purchased from the French adventurers . In the article published by the New York Times on February 26, 1895, under the title of “Menelik’s terrible expedition,” the newspaper describes that an expedition sent by king Menelik of Shewa Amhara (1866-1889), and later the emperor of Ethiopia (1889-1913), against the “Galla tribes” (the then reference to the Oromo people by Amharas and Abyssinian rulers) slew 70,000 tribesmen and captured 15,000 men . The brutal attack continued and decimated the Oromo population from 10 million by half to 5 million resulting in the extermination of millions of the Oromos, according to Martial De Salviac, a French missionary who lived among the Oromos [3, 4].
Abyssinia had neither the knowledge nor the capacity to conquer neighboring free nations if it were not for the firearms and military advice emperor Menelik received from European colonial powers including Great Britain, France, and Italy, during “the European scramble for Africa”. There was practical consanguinity between other African colonization and invasion of Oromia and similar states neighboring Abyssinia. European colonizers and Abyssinians used identical tools and pursued a similar objective of dominating and exploiting others’ economic and human resources.
With the continued advice and support of European colonial powers, the Abyssinian empire joined the League of Nations as a junior colonial partner, to gain protection and to consolidate its expansion into Oromia, southern, and eastern states, under the reign of king Haile Selassie. Later, the Abyssinian empire was renamed to the Ethiopian empire under the leadership of Haile Selassie in 1931. Both king Menelik and Haile Selassie turned Oromos into serfs, dispossessed them of their properties, lands, and human rights for over eight decades until the communist military junta regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam rose to power in 1974 following the civilian disobedience led by the Oromos and other oppressed nations.
It is unfortunate that the United Nations that replaced the League of Nations and promoted freedom and the independence of nations following World War II chose to turn a blind eye to the subjugation of the Oromo people in contravention of its own policies elsewhere and the Charter of the United Nations which affirms the Right to Self-determination of all peoples. Throughout history, UN and Western Powers have protected the Ethiopian empire with no regard for the Oromo people’s welfare and their right to self-determination, thereby perpetuating their subjugation. Regardless, Oromia has never voluntarily accepted the union with Abyssinia. It is involuntarily kept in Ethiopia and endures continued violence and tyranny.
In 1991, the Mengistu Haile Mariam’s military regime was removed from power by the bitter struggle of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), the Tigray People Liberation Front (TPLF), and the Eritrean People Liberation Front (EPLF) which was followed by the London Conference, led by the United States government, which ended by rewarding the Eritreans with their independence, and TPLF with “state responsibility” of forming the Ethiopian Transitional Government. The Oromo and other nations and nationalities accepted the Transitional Charter that outlined the formation of a multi-national federal arrangement that recognized the nations’, nationalities’, and peoples’ right to self-determination and self-rule. However, in practice, they were denied these rights. The OLF was eventually forced out of the Transitional Government in 1992, and Oromia has been subjected to military rule ever since.
Before it assumed state power, the TPLF had created the Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (OPDO) from Afaan Oromo-speaking prisoners of war, with the mission of suppressing dissent in, and exploiting, Oromia. It had also created the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which included OPDO and its other servile parties that it controlled, and in whose name it ruled the country with an iron fist, before it was forced to retreat to Tigray by Oromo non-violent revolution.
The Oromo non-violent revolution which started in 2014, culminated in the expulsion of TPLF from the seats of federal power in 2018, and was hoped to usher in freedom for the Oromo and other peoples of the country. Despite costing the Oromo nation thousands of lives, the revolution was hijacked by Afaan Oromo-speaking Neo-neftegna group led by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed within the OPDO. To hide its true colors, the Neo-Neftegna team promised to respect human rights, freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of press, abide by the constitution, rule of law and transition to democratic governance. The promised reform and transition to democracy was derailed by the backward-looking imperial ambition of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed to become the 7th king of the empire and to stay in power against the will of the peoples of Ethiopia.
As a result, Ethiopia is on the verge of becoming a failed state under the visionless, Machiavellian style leadership of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. While Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed is busy with glorifying and building statues for the most barbaric brutal feudal kings of Abysinia, the whole world is demolishing statues of such brutal figures everywhere. He is working hard to dismantle the multi-national constitution currently in place and to take back Ethiopia to the feudal era instead of crafting a forward-looking system that could hold together the diverse multinational empire of Ethiopia. To this end, he has fully deployed military rule (command post) by commanding the army, national security and police forces to silence all progressive Organizations that support transition to democracy, self-determination and respect human rights in all parts of the country.
Furthermore, to remain in power indefinitely, the neo-neftegna group led by Abiy Ahmed has illegally and forcefully postponed national and regional elections indefinitely, and beyond its five years term of office ending on October 5, 2020, thereby creating a clear constitutional crisis.
To resolve the constitutional crisis and to bring about a solution to the Oromo people’s long-standing political demands, the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC), two leading independent Oromo opposition parties that are legally registered with the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia, had formally called on the Ethiopian government to chart a political solution in the form of a Transitional Caretaker government involving all legally registered independent political parties in the country. Instead of heeding their advice, the government of the PM Abiy Ahmed decided to extend his power through an unconstitutional interpretation of the constitution.
As a result, come October 5, 2020, due to the absence of a constitutionally mandated government in Oromia and Ethiopia, chaos and civil war are very likely to ensue, resulting in refugee crisis and potential genocide by the illegitimate military government of Abiy Ahmed. To avert this impending catastrophe, Oromia urgently needs the establishment of a Transitional Caretaker Government.
The Tigray region has been enjoying absolute freedom since 1992 and has now defied the federal government and held a regional election as a reflection of its status as a genuinely autonomous state in the Ethiopian empire . The Amhara region also enjoys autonomy. Its leaders advance the Amhara people’s interests both in their region and at the federal government level. Oromia, however, has been transformed into a battlefield by this regime through imposition of illegal state of emergency. Since the invasion and occupation of Oromia by Abysinia, the Oromo have never been allowed to choose their representatives and form their own government. All rulers of Oromia, including the current pseudo-government led by deputy president Shimalis Abdissa, have been installed and imposed on the Oromo people by the central government.
Taking the gravity of the situation into account, the Oromo Liberation Front and the Oromo Federalist Congress have proposed the establishment of Oromia Transitional Caretaker Government involving all Oromo stakeholders, and have called for support and intervention of the global powers and your leadership.
As a coalition of 45 Oromo civic, professional, human right, and faith-based organizations, the Oromo Global Forum calls on the UN, US, EU, AU, and all global stakeholders to intervene in the political and constitutional crisis of Ethiopia, and to support the formation of Transitional Caretaker Government of Oromia involving independent Oromo institutions. The proposed Transitional Caretaker Government of Oromia will oversee a peaceful, free, and fair elections led by an impartial and independent Electoral Commission it shall establish under the supervision of UN, US, EU, and AU.
We believe disregard for this call and continued indifference to seek a permanent resolution for the Oromo political demands will be regrettable. We consider all global powers who have contributed to emboldening the regime in power through financial and military support are equally responsible for the ongoing crimes the regime in power is committing against Oromos and other nations and nationalities in the Ethiopian empire.
The global powers should learn from the consequences of ignoring the national crises in Somalia, Yugoslavia, Yemen, Ruanda, etc. Early intervention in the impending crisis in Ethiopia can save millions of human lives, and can avert enormous refugee crisis and human misery of the local populations, and can also save humanitarian aid costs to international organizations and governments.
Thus, as advocates for the Oromo people, we reiterate our call for your intervention and support for the OLF and OFC proposed establishment of an autonomous Oromia Transitional Caretaker Government that shall establish an impartial and independent Electoral Commission to ensure a free and fair elections and govern Oromia for the duration of the transitional period.
We sincerely hope you will take our advice seriously and play a leading role in ending the suffering of the Oromo and other marginalized peoples in Ethiopia preventing a potentially devastating civil war.
With best regards,
The Oromia Global Forum
- Bilal Oromo Dawa Center
- Canaan Oromo Evangelical Church
- Charismatic International Fellowship Church
- DMV Oromo Islamic Center
- Gaadisa Sabboontottaa KP
- Global Gumii Oromia
- Global Oromo Advocacy Group
- Global Waaqeffannaa Council
- Horn of Africa Genocide Watch
- Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa
- International Oromo Lawyers Association
- International Oromo Women’s Organization
- International Qeerroo Support Group
- Network of Oromo Studies
- Mana Kiristaanaa Fayyisaa Addunyaa
- Oromo Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church
- Oromo Communities’ Association of North America
- Oromo Community of Bergen
- Oromo Community of Columbus Ohio
- Oromo Community of Oslo
- Oromo Evangelical Lutheran Church of Los Angeles
- Oromo Evangelical Lutheran Church of Washington DC Metropolitan Area
- Oromo Evangelical Lutheran Mission Society
- Oromo Human Rights and Relief Organization
- Oromo Legacy, Leadership and Advocacy Association
- Oromo Lutheran Church of Baltimore
- Oromo Parliamentarians Council
- Oromo Political Prisoners Association
- Oromo Relief Organization, ORA in USA
- Oromo Resurrection Evangelical Church
- Oromo Scholars and Professionals
- Oromo Seniors Welfare & Benevolent Association In Victoria (OSWBAV) Inc
- Oromo Studies Association
- Oromia Support Group
- Our Redeemer Oromo Evangelical Church
- Tawfiq Islamic Center
- Tawhid Oromo Islamic Center in Minnesota
- Tumsa Sochii Haqa Oromoo
- Union of Oromo Communities in Canada
- United Oromo Chirstian Church in Australia
- United Oromo Evangelical Church
- Wabii Maccaa Association
- Washington DC Metropolitan Oromo SDA Church
- https://www.nytimes.com/1895/02/26/archives/meneleks-terrible-expedition.html (please see the attached image of the NY Times article)
- De Salviac, Un peuple antique au pays de Ménãik, 86-87, 278.